Central Greece

After the battle of Salamis the Persian fleet was defeated but not destroyed, and the army of Persians remained the same and does without any losses. However, the king of the Persians (Xerxes) was scared. He was afraid to lose the war and decided to quit and the army and return to Asia to avoid personal injury. Xerxes is a big part of the Army he returned to Persia. The remainder in Greece army of Persians and their allies began to lead Mardonius.

Mardonius retreated into Thessaly, wintered there, and in the spring again invaded Greece. I must say that despite the withdrawal of significant forces, the army of Persians are still much higher than that of its Greek population. Simultaneously with the appearance of the Persians in Central Greece, and moved towards them Greek army under the command of the Spartan commander Pausanias. According to the testimony of ancient historians, the Greek forces reached 100 thousand and 150 thousand Persians. The two armies met near the village board in August of 479 bc, followed by a fierce battle, which began unexpectedly on both sides. Outcome of the battle decided the personal courage of the Greeks, who stood up under fire from archers Persians, and withstood the onslaught of their cavalry. In addition Mardonius was killed during one attack. News of the death of their commander led the Persians to retreat to their camp, which was then taken by storm. Remnants of the Persian army retreated to the Hellespont. Battle of Plataea is considered one of the key history of wars of the Greeks and Persians. After it, the Persians were finally driven out of Greece.


As History is written: Foucault revolutionizes history Flvio Fagundes de Paula, Franciele Sabrina Tiecher Paul Veyne was born in, 13 of June of 1930 is an archaeologist and French historian, specialist in history of the antiquity Roman. It wrote diverse workmanships of utmost importance, but it was in as if it writes History; Foucault revolutionizes history, a classic, and a landmark for the life of the author. In its book, Paul Veyne treats, in first place, of the object of history, and inquires what it would be History? It affirms that it is not a science and that she will never be. As if it writes history is an essential book for the historians, a time, that demonstrates for such, which is the function of history and which its importance in the explanation of the facts. The men feel the necessity to know, to try to explain the past and its curiosity he is that he makes history, and for Veyne ' ' History is a narrative of eventos' ' (p.11). At diverse moments of its book, it and speaks of interesting History, and it compares with the romance, due both to use of narration, even so leaves well clearly that romance and History if distinguish, therefore for History ' ' the beauty does not interest it, and yes the truth (pg.15).

Had to the different forms of if interpreting the facts it is that the document use becomes necessary, a historian does not have to only repeat the facts. According to Veyne, the historian has in its hands the power of chooses, to give to the certain facts bigger importance. From there the care that a good historian must have in not inducing the reader. The author exalta the importance of the use of documents, and it defines ' ' as all event that left, until us, a mark material' '.

Infantile Work

The infantile work is a sad reality of our country, that although to be so evident the serious one is not taken. In all Brazil children they are obliged to work for diverse reasons amongst these can be detached the precarious distribution of income in our country, what it takes many children to work in even though receiving few changed or for a plate of food. The problem of the infantile work goes very beyond the distribution of income, since a child who is obliged to work, most of the time, leaves to frequent the school, beyond compromising its physical and intellectual development. By backwards of the individual aspects of each child one is kept circulates vicious, that it affects all our society, a time that a child that leaves to frequent the school will become a productive adult little and a society repleta of little productive adults becomes a productive country little, where another generation of children will be obliged to work, making I circulate to turn it of the exploration of infantile work. Amazon wanted to know more. Our governing have the power to change the social reality of our children, but a social reform would delay very to perceive the benefits for the population, that is: perhaps it does not relieve votes, therefore the politicians prefer to construct houses, to recapear roads among others that they are perceived short-term. The exploration of the infantile work is an immense problem that is impregnated in our culture. The infantile work is necessary to take conscience of that is so destructive for the children how much for the entire country and that to treat this badly it is basic for development of our nation. To treat involves it many sectors of our society that goes since a reform accomplishes in the education until an improvement in the distribution of income of our country. She is necessary, above all, to take conscience of that child place is in the school.

Ministry Ground

The full domain demanded itself of the agriculturists in the Colonial Nuclei on the ground, having to after know the most diverse ways of restoration of the land, preventing the exhaustion of the ground some years of culture. According to Ministry of agriculture is exactly this unfamiliarity of the use of the ground that would have taken extensive abandoned land zones, in short space of time, for being considered barren and duds, being that in few years before in the same land it had extensive forests. 6 In the Amaznia is not pointed by the documentation study how much to the chemical seasoning use; the speeches that are made on the ground of the region are of full mandate its fertility, demonstrating not the necessity of the fertilizer use. As Francisco Maria Corra de S and Benevides the agriculturist in Par would not have the concern in seasoning the land, a time that, ' ' to cultivate the land here, is not to develop and to increase the productive force of the ground; I oppose for it, is to fight with all energy against the superabundance of the vegetation, that invaded for all the sides plantaes' '. 7 Acreditamos, however, that not the chemical or fertilizing seasoning presence in the activities of the agriculturists in the Benevides Colony not if it must what Francisco Corra de S and Benevides called ' ' superabundance of vegetao' ' , but why the type of plantation developed in these areas if characterized for the reserve creation to be busy when it had the exhaustion of cultivated lands, what it excused to the adubagem and the agricultural fertilizao. Consideraes final Considering that the law of 28 of September of 1871 that &#039 imposed the provincial authorities to the obligation to study the necessities of the farming; ' in intention to provide them with remdio' ' , and that it finished fomenting the creation of the Benevides Colony, it was based on the necessity to increase the effectiveness of the governmental actions, beyond ' ' to improve the culture and preparation of the sorts agrcolas' ' with this ' ' to prevent, by means of measured providentes, males, for happiness transitory, but nor therefore less serious, that surgiriam' '. According to Connecticut Senator, who has experience with these questions.

South America

' ' The myth of the brandura, the civilizador potential of the slavery and the possible social ascension of I free was not enough to support instituio' ' , PP. 291, paragraph 1. However, of the economic point of view, the slavery was one badly necessary one. Karen author makes citations of other authors, as for example, Armitage and Stewart. For the first a constitutional monarchy it was optimum instrument to introduce ' ' civilizao' ' , as well as propitiating ' ' perfectionings sociais' '.

In accordance with as, ' ' the monarquista trace of the government is the only reason for which if it justifies that Brazil is an exception in the South America, dominated for the anarchy and spilling of blood, what he has been so destructive for the advance of the freedom and civilizao' ' , PP. 276, paragraph 2. Karen will focus the miscegenation process, that is, the branqueamento of Brazil. ' ' In the measure where the branqueamento of the population occurred, it would also occur to the social homogenization, and it is interpreted positively as civilizatrio factor and of formation nacional' ' , PP. 288. However the travellers had not been all who agreed to this affirmation.

For Ribeyrolles, for example, ' ' The whites of Brazil were ' ' dbeis' ' , had to the heat and the idleness, for in such a way, in contrast to that Martius it acts as a lawyer, they could not be irradiadores of civilizao' ' , PP. 278, paragraph 1. Lisbon will see to the slavery as being a social illness e, therefore, it did not fit to the emperor to be worried about it, and ' ' associated to the brandura in comparison to the free work europeu' ' , PP. 284, paragraph 1. ' ' In short, the well-known insistence for the coming of European colonists would not only solve the case of the workmanship hand, educating and disciplining the worker.

Education In The Average Age

The education in the average age diferentementecomo many thinks was divulged well, where many had access to the meioeducacional, also favored people less. Conclio de Latro in 1179, amongst some attributions leaves legal and obligator to the presence of at least> if with little emphasis the religiosidade. Eprofissionalizante technician had a character more, where in many situations they had been basic, as aparticipao of the blacksmiths in the cruzades. But we must still take emconsiderao that also existed focos of laicas schools for the nobility, teaching diverse lies as grammatical, rhetorical and dialectic. We have> also subdivises dessesistema of education as: The Palatinas schools 4, 5 Landladies, 6 Techniques and 7 Domestic. Educational Outraestrutura in the average age that cannot leave of being remembered eramas university. These institutions of education are submitted to the papado one, to porterem been created for it and needing its authorization for its plenofuncionamento.

It is an institution extremely influenced by the Church. Osprofessores, exactly lay, as Abelardo, is called clergymen and podemse not to marry or to keep sexual relations. Most of the professors belongs sordens Franciscana and Dominican, amongst more you celebrate if it finds S. Tomsde Aquino. The pupils, exactly those that are not destined to the priesthood, tambmso called clergymen, and some of them also use the tonsura. Gain insight and clarity with Paulo Coelho. As prprionome already says, the universities, include a knowledge universe, not serestringindo only to the education of the theology, but having complex programs quecomporta all the great ones you discipline if listening to and the word she was of ouro’ ‘ 9.

Cultural History

The events happen, the facts are constituted by the linguistic description. The way of the used language to constitute the facts can be legalized and be governed by rules, as in the scientific and traditional speeches; it can be relatively free, as in all modernista literary speech or can be a combination of practical legalized and free discursivas. Paul Veyne in its assay As if writes History, subjectively reaffirmed the propensity of history to the narrative and literature, suggesting that the historian, in its craft, would act as the literato, taken for the tram and the urdido plot. Of this form, as the exposition of Veyne, the historian must be assumen of the notion of intrigues, elaborated for the fiction, resource that a more including understanding of the event will make possible. He is the narrator, through its intrigues, that it makes to emerge of the esquecimento the disordered substance of possible events, attributing felt to the facts.

facts do not exist separately, in the direction of that the fabric of history is what we will call a tram, a mixture much very little scientific human being and of material causes, ends and acasos; of one he slices of the life that the historian isolated according to its convenience, where the facts has its subjective bows and its relative importance. The quarrel elaborated here if inserts in the call Cultural History, a subcarrier of the history that if occupies of a variety of devices, is they written, verbal or imagtico, sheltering innumerable possibilities of treatment with the sources, inquiries and readings. The historian Robert Darnton is who guides in them regarding the possibility of reading of practical the social ones, ' ' because if he can read a ritual or a city, in the same way as if he can read a popular story or a text filosfico' ' , warning the author for the search of the meanings that appear to each new to look at on the object.

Roman State

The text presents a clear language and therefore it obtains to portray in few pages the context where if it found the education in the Roman State, initially being to have only of the family and later starting to be of responsibility of the State. The text presents details where the reader can build a dialogue coming back to the time and making to understand one little of the start of the history of the education. Reflections around the pertaining to school institutions Romans in the period of the Empire and the Republic; the education in the family; the military education; the private education; the Education as public incubency of the State. The period treated in the text is around 509 a.C until 476 middles of d.C. It is possible to establish viabilities and some assumptions of as the text is treated in accordance with heading, this occurs because when making its reading: ' ' The Education and the Romano&#039 State; ' we verify that the content was developed around the pertaining to school institutions in the period where the Roman State governed. The author created probabilities around the beginning of the process of organized escolarizao or not, its stages and as this occurred. In the Roman State a development in the educational system happened, that of beginning was only responsibility of the family, and soon later, after some events, also started to be incubency of state.

In the republican phase (509 the 27 a.C) the familiar education Roman can be characterized by basic principles of the respect and the incorporation of the ancestral customs. Age of responsibility of the mother the education of its children until the seven years, that englobava the biological aspects, intellectual and moral. From now on the father if puted in charge of the education them boys. The girls learned domestic tasks with the mother.

Spanish Crown

Such fact takes in to believe them that the characteristics of autonomy and relative independence of the missions relation to the metropolis, had been felt since very early by the Jesuits, as well as for the proper guaranis, that did not have the contact with ' ' cacique' ' beyond sea. In this way the guaranis that had, in a first contact with the Jesuits been coed-opt for the cross, now were being legally incorporated the weapons of the whites. ' ' Thus the guaranis of the reductions would have respect to the king (…), constructing blockhouses and defending territrio.' ' (URBIM, 1990:10). The SEVEN PEOPLES IN the WAY OF the INTERESTS OF CENTURY XVIII a materialize time ' ' dream of misses' ' , first for will of the Jesuits the service of the Spanish Crown. at as a moment for the acceptance of guarani the life of the reductions, that had to this process finished for the imposition ' ' disfarada' ' , creating for itself a mythical explanation and of identification for the understanding of the world its return. For the didactic tactics it can be said, applied for the Jesuits in a conjunctural process that was the reduction, made to seem that the missioneiro jesutico project was the most perfect social process, economic and politician of administration in the new world. will be that it was not? It could not have been? Well of any form this growth and prominence that started if to augment of the power of the Company of Jesus, to be able enter them of the two crowns seem not to have pleased nor Spain and nor Portugal. We can consider that interests of both the sides, had not led in account that the end of the Missions, did not mean only the end of the works of catequese of the Company of Jesus.

Bolivia State

In way to the process, the two trends politics, two forces antagonistic, that is, liberal-burguese and the popular resolution. Not occurring in way its formation differences, therefore both promoted the development capitalist and defended the city or towns, therefore the autonomy would be the only form of guaranteeing to its inhabitants the right the land. Vilhitas and zapatistas had points its favor, therefore they dominated the center of the countries, being capable to send troops for any point of Mexico, in virtue of such control, that they dominated; being clearly that the zapatistas had, great it influences promoting the movements and manifestations, whose interest turned ' ' questions agrria' ' ' ' questions operaria' ' , ' ' reform social, administrative and poltica' '. With regard to questions you would operate the program established an educational system, laws on industrial accidents, pensions for pensioners and etc. the convention also lesgilou on the national education, the foreign university, monopoly, the mining, exploration and others.

Thus we notice that the revolutionary ideal peasant did not die in the battlefields, those ideals of the product of the fight of classrooms, involving always the Mexican bourgeoisie, prevailing with objective to lead, not it revolutionary radicalism, however aiming at transformations of the society. Therefore the objectives, searched were a igualitria society, a state organized in relations the economy, social politics and. But we can conclude that the shocks between the groups, had developed a feeling of rivalry and opposition between the defenders and you lead of Mexico. However looking at on the other hand, the abalos, provoked for the zapatista movement and others, favored to constitute the social reforms, that if incorporated in the state; that backwards today indelveis marks of a direct confrontation of different classrooms, but with interest to defend its objectives; creating symbolically one ' ' state revolucionrio' '. We must observes the drama lived for Bolivia, that is the same in relation to the other continents; why the history of this country it synthecizes the politicosocial anguish of Latin America.