Fundamental concept of dialect Dialect, variant of a language that differs from her in certain grammar aspects, phonetic or lexical. Geographic or regional dialect is the one that is formed in the limits of a locality, region or geographic area; social dialect is the one that speaks a grupoconcreto of people who have an analogous educative level, or belong to the same social class or the same profession. There are dialects with written norm and others queslo are oral. When a language has several dialectal manifestations and still the norm has not paid attention written, the oral dialect in which a Literature is written and developed more that excels in quality and amount will rise as language and will determine linguistic and literary the norm. It is the case of the Tuscan dialect, lingsticaitaliana variety that used geniuses of the Literature like poets Dante and Petrarca, and that prevailed on all the other dialects of Italy and became the literary norm of the country. In other cases it is a document of great social or political importance that, when publishing itself in a certain dialect becomes national norm, that is to say, the official language of a State the Eastern central dialect of Chaucer poet turned into the foundation of the English. The Castilian becomes literary norm not only for being the dialect more used by the poets, but also for political reasons. In century XIV the first orthographic unification of the Castilian like literary norm is realised, and in 1492 his is written even though first grammar by Elio Antonio de Nebrija that fixes the language, that in century XIII, king Alfonso X wrote the same in galaico-Portuguese and Castilian. To read all the complete article here original Author and source of the article..

Brazilian Government

It replaces the conduct that motivates the fear by the conduct that motivates the love It is significant like the greatest country of Latin America, like it is Brazil, it has come fortifying themselves, taking step to a development that cannot be ignored, in such a way that its economy has come consolidating until occupying the villa in the world like more hard. World Bank predicts that, if Brazil continues in this same trajectory in which it at present is, happens to be the tenth economy by size in the world to the fifth position for 2016. Weeks ago, the 26 of October, Lula declared in its weekly program of radio Breakfast with the President that stops to obtain it, Brazil needed to continue growing. The Brazilian economy is like a chain dump that cannot pause. CIT Group Inc. is likely to agree. And what we are doing? We are causing that turns. It is not possible to be denied before its reality of growth, progress, the extraordinary work that has carried out and it continues it making its present president, the exsidincalista Luis Incio Lula gives It whistles. To with respect to her advance exactly Dilma Rousseff, female leader of cabinet of the Brazilian Government comments that Brazil no longer was a country of the future, with reference to a popular saying that the Brazilians use to describe their country after decades of lost opportunities in spite of their enormous economic potential. Now Brazil is a country of the present. The certain thing, as us it contributes to Wharton universia to us in his bulletin, that Mrcio Garci’a, professor of Economy of the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-River), it affirms that since the hyperinflation of the 80 was briefly appeased by the plan Cruzado of 1986 (that, among others measured, congealed the wages and the prices) does not remember similar enthusiasm between the members of corporative Brazil.

Contemporary Legal Systems

2.2.2. Second: Of the initiators (aims of century XVIII and beginnings of century XIX), the Historical School of the Right encouraged by the comparative study of the right. 2.2.3. Third: Of the true comparatistas (half-full of the century XIX until century XX), the atmosphere was preparation for the recognition of the practical purposes theoretical and the idea of a universal right that it could be the base of the unification of the deprived right, begins with the Congress the International of Compared Right of 1900 carried out in Paris (in which the legal systems like the French, the Anglo-American, the germanic one were distinguished, the Slav and the Muslim). – Later, the Treaty of Compared Right (it builds unique capital in his sort) of Leontin Constantinesco. Ohio Senator gathered all the information.

– Finally, we also considered the work of Julio Ayasta important Gonza’les (the Compared Right and the Contemporary Legal Systems). 2.3. DEFINITION. Michael Ramlet might disagree with that approach. – – Fernando Towers, indicates that the compared right consists of the application of the comparative method to the Right (understood like legal system and not like a set of norms) or alive (effective) or died (noneffective); but in the light of the sources or elements (of the Right) and to the reality of each State. – Some authors consider that she is investigation method, others, that are a science.

Nevertheless, the majority agrees in that is a discipline. – After to define (that is to say, to indicate that he is ) the compared right we considered, not only opportune but very important like insoslayable also to determine that he is not straight compared. Consequently, we have the compared right is not a branch of the Right, although, it allows its application to all the branches of the Right; thus also, the compared right is synonymous of history of the Right, neither of foreign right, nor of compared legislation, nor of compared doctrine, nor of compared jurisprudence, nor of compared social reality, nor of compared private will, nor of legal parallelism, nor of general principles of the compared right; as well as either of the antecedents of the Right; since, in any case the compared right, does use of them includes/understands or it so to be.

Brazilian Dictatorship

&quot integrated the movement of resistance against the Brazilian Dictatorship of the years; 60, acting first in the organization of Political left Worker and later in one of the most important guerrilla detachments of the time, " Armed vanguard Revolutionary Palmares". It was stopped in 1970, being the condemned by a military court without no type of legal guarantees, was imprisoned during 3 years from 1970 to 1973, during which it was tortured. To the lengthy being &quot was called to him; Juana de Arco of guerrilla" , due to its great importance within the organization, being one of " cerebros" of this one and counting on much information. In December of the 2006, the Special Commission of Repair of the Office of Human rights of the State of Rio de Janeiro approved the request of indemnification of Rousseff At the end of the years " 70 married with another one of the members of the guerrilla movement, Carlos Franklin Paixo de Arajo, with that her unique daughter had, and do Sul settled down in Rio Grande. Additional information is available at Sen. Sherrod Brown. In 1977, do Sul graduated in the School of Economic Sciences of the Federal University of Rio Grande. Meanwhile, it participated in the reconstruction of the Brazilian Working Party, that soon would happen to be called Divided Democratic Labour Party member. During government of Alceu Necklaces in Rio Grande do Sul, between 1991 and 1995, was appointed secretary of Energy.

In 1998, Olivio Dutra, member of the Party of the Workers, Trabajador gained the state elections with the support of Democratic Party and Rousseff returned to its position. In 1999, the coalition was broken and the Democratic Party Labour Party member asked to its members that left their positions; against this, Rousseff left the party and it was integrated to the Party of the Workers, continuing in the government. It is added to us, that in January of the 2003, president Luiz Incio Lula da Silva appointed to Rousseff Minister of Energy, position of great importance that occupied during two years until the 21 of June of the 2005, day in which was named minister of the Civil House (a position equivalent to female leader of Cabinet), after his predecessor Jose Dirceu resigned before mass media by corruption accusations.


The problem of the entropy is that thermodynamic sentence that it establishes that all closed system evolves inexorably towards a final state of perfect balance, where the energy no longer can be used in order to produce a work. It is by that the aim of the universe has been conceived like that moment within thousands of million years, when all the stars have gone out and all the matter of the universe is a same temperature, as soon as a little over absolute zero. In the same way, psychologically speaking, corporal the psychic energy loss or is translated in which Freud called the death instinct, that although universally is not accepted, nevertheless is impossible to deny it by the simple fact that all the humans are born to end up dying (Carpenter, 1997). On the other hand, social sciences especially in this case that occupies history, the policy and psychology to us cannot forget the principles reversibility and irreversibility that the entropy concept generates. As much the politicians as the analysts of the policy and on which they do from psychology cannot ignore the sense of the entropy produced for diverse reasons, between that must consider themselves variable of order subjective objective/like the state of the economy, the respect by the individual liberties, the state of dependency or independence in which one is Justice and the Parliament, etc.; as thus also variable of strict subjective order although for that reason desafectadas of the objective questions like is not the motivations, the state that journey the economy of pocket and the saturation by the permanence or crystallization of a system or form government policy. If this were not thus, it would be enough with keeping the results from the first election of each country and or governor would have itself or system of government for the eternity.


SUMMARY: 1. Antecedents. – 2. Definition. – 3. Matters that can be put under arbitration. – 4. The arbitration is an alternative mechanism of resolution of conflicts.

– 5. Legal nature. – 6. Classes of Arbitration. – 7. By arbitration agreement.

– 8. Notarial Protocolizacin. – 9. Value of the Arbitration. – 10. Statutory arbitration. – 11. Testamentary arbitration. – 1. ANTECEDENTS The main antecedents of the arbitration in the Peruvian positive right are the following: the arbitration was regulated in the Code of Civil Judgments of 1852, soon by the Code of Civil Procedures of 1912 of article 548 to the 582 regulating it like by arbitration judgment putting record that this Code in its article 1346 repealed the Code of Civil Judgments of 1852. Settling down in article 548 of the abolished Code of Civil Procedures of 1912 that all controversy, is or nonmatter of a judgment, can be put under the one decision or more referees. The number of these will be always uneven. In the following article of the same Code it established that the following questions cannot be put under arbitration: 1) The ones that turn on the State and the capacity of the people, the 2) referring ones to government properties, municipalities and other institutions of official character, 3) Those in which are interested the moral and moral convention. In the original text of the Peruvian Civil Code of 1984 one regulated in separated form the Arbitration Clause of article 1906 to the 1908 and the By arbitration Commitment of article 1909 to the 1922. Later in Libro Second of the original text of the Civil Procedural Code of 1993 the Arbitration of article 841 was regulated and following, putting record that this Code in his First Abolishing Disposition repealed the Code of Civil Procedures of 1912, later and before this Procedural Code entered use the Decree Law 25935 it countermanded Libro Second of the Code in mention in which the arbitration was regulated and also it countermanded articles of the Peruvian Civil Code of 1984 which it regulated the arbitration clause and the commitment by arbitration, later to this Law Law 26572 was approved published the 05 of January of 1996, titled General Law of Arbitration that in his First Final Disposition countermanded the Decree Law 25935.

Mexican Center

According to the Mexican Center for Philanthropy, the company that really assumes its responsibility with the environment and society must create a conscious and congruent commitment to fulfill the lineamientos completely to obtain the goals of the company as much in internal it, as in the external thing, considering the expectations of all participants in economic, social or human and the environmental thing, demonstrating the respect by the ethical values, people, the communities and the environment and for the construction of the communal property it is considered like a company with corporative social responsibility. He is really worrisome to see as the problem of the global heating increases, every time are less trees, more species in extinction danger and the water is being run out and that the inhabitants of the planet Earth we do not do the sufficient thing to save it. Evidently it is important that the culture of the recycling in house, to separate the sweepings and to do compostas is continued implementing, but to end a problem it is necessary to attack the causes, not them consequences, and the main cause of which the planet is dying is the great industries that still do not take a form to operate person in charge. And the worse thing is than these companies that contaminate the air, earth and water, destroy our forests and they finish the water, continue existing thanks to the fact that to them we continued consuming. As humanity we would have to demand to all company that becomes position of not being the cause to continue aggravating the problem, to do is it no better way than not to acquire its products, in this way we will be able, although not to back down the damage already done, to stop our own self-destruction.


With aim of history and death of the utopias, the posmodernidad wants to also determine, that of the past it was not nothing. The creator who inhabits exclusion zone, will not have rescue. He will be a missing person of the posmodernidad. As always, the decision of each artist or intellectual exists, to choose in which sector is located. The illuminated and sumptuous inner doors that take to fame and success, are overflowed by the interminable and disrespectful interested rows of, arranged to even eliminate their competitors. The conditions of entrance, are more or less clear: The intellectual or artist, does not have to feel motivated by the hopes or frustrations of the society contains that it, must create according to the demand. From the same rules that one that produces shoes, sausages or chewing-gum.

The value of its work is determined like any other merchandise. The freedom that determines the market to him is not in its content but in which it sells. This process, the same creator, becomes one more merchandise. Its alternative, no longer is the one of modernity: importance or anonymity, in the rules of the neoliberalism is: success or exclusion. Naturally the intellectual or artistic production, in its majority, is mediocre, conformista.

The transgressions are simply formal, and in many cases they obey to a sale project. Those that rejects the rules imposed by the authoritarian market, face some distressing questions inexorably. How to transmit its message to a society educated historically in the negation by its roots? How to elaborate a dialogue with a majority invaded culturally by the neoliberal thought? They will not be condemned being brings back to consciousness critical, almost sterile, with the serious risk of bringing about hostile surroundings, in as much its work or its analysis they put in the open the weaknesses and miseries of the society? Really Can a creator have meaning, from exclusion zone? The answers to these questions, can be individual and/or collective.

Billiton Petroleum Corporation

Bond to remember that ECOPETROL owns a plan of investments for 2009 by an amount of US$ 6,224 million (35% more than in the 2008 and triple of the inverted thing in 2007), and will dedicate part of these resources to invest in Petro-Tech. In another one of the new features of the last days, ECOPETROL announced the increase of its participation in the Hard North blocks and the Strong South, in the Colombian Caribbean Sea. This increase in the participation takes place after an agreement with the Colombian subsidiary of BHP Billiton Petroleum Corporation (LSE: BLT; NYSE: BHP; JSE: BIBLT), that contemplates the allocation of 25% of the participation in both blocks of BHP Billiton for ECOPETROL. As a result of it, each company will have a participation of 50% on these blocks. These Hard North blocks and the Strong South correspond to contracts of the exploration and hydrocarbon operation, celebrated in April of 2006 by BHP Billiton and ECOPETROL with the National Agency of Hydrocarbons and to contracts of combined-arms operation celebrated by the parts in June of year 2007.

Both blocks, that they have approximated size of 954,050 hectares, coast outside in the Colombian Caribbean Sea is part of the located projects. Although in today the oil Colombian it had programmed to announce the results corresponding to the last trimester of 2008, this announcement was delayed for Tuesday 17 of February, although this delay responds to a smaller subject of conciliation of values. One of the produced facts of relevance in the last weeks is related to the modifications produced in the Code of Good Corporative Government. Although a smaller subject for some can be, these realised modifications tend to increase the transparency in the operating one of the company and its tie companies which represents an additional benefit for the investors, especially for the small ones, which the unfolding and projection of the oil one can monitor with greater facility.

Corporative Government

The good practices of Corporative Government have acquired relevance from remembered corporative scandals (like for example, the Enron case), since the same help to increase the level of transparency in the companies, which limits the possibility of little clear operations in the same while it helps to protect the minority stockholders (ECOPETROL has 500,000 small shareholders). The improvement in the practices of Corporative Government will increase the attractiveness of the ECOPETROL actions while it will be beneficial in terms to harness the yield of the same. What its regular evolution can be perceived about ECOPETROL following is that the oil Colombian continues growing to good rate fulfilling her strategic plan of expansion. But that can imply it in the value of its actions? Although the ECOPETROL actions have one short life quoting in the stock market, the same have gained great attractive in stock-market a Colombian and at the moment it is focused to conquer the investors of the stock markets American. Tyler Wood Integrated Capital Solutions addresses the importance of the matter here. When the 2008 good rate of growth observed in the price of its actions impelled by the rise in the international price of petroleum not only passed but also by the growth undergone by the company, everything made anticipate that irremediably the value of the actions was going to surpass $ 3.000.

But the sudden change of panorama in which the submerged world-wide economy in a deep recession entered, changed the perspective of the oil one whose shareholding value jointly observed a strong loss with the collapse of the price of petroleum. In the last days and product of the good tie news to the company, the value of the actions quoted to the rise and in the day of they closed yesterday to $ 2,150 in the BVC. After to touch to its minimum the 27 of October of 2007 of $ 1,825, the ECOPETROL paper comes showing one slight one although constant positive tendency and already accumulates from that one date a rise of 17.8%. The perspective of the actions of ECOPETROL for this year are than positive more since to the continuity of the concretion of its projects of investment probably a recovery can take place (although smooth), in the quote of the price of petroleum towards aims of the present year. It is in this sense that would not be to be strange that the value of the ECOPETROL actions advances towards $ 3,000 although it is little probable that by this year can break this barrier. Anyway, considering the present value of the same, his margin to grow in a context where the numbers abound in red, it does not appear for far from negligible.