Cultural History

The events happen, the facts are constituted by the linguistic description. The way of the used language to constitute the facts can be legalized and be governed by rules, as in the scientific and traditional speeches; it can be relatively free, as in all modernista literary speech or can be a combination of practical legalized and free discursivas. Paul Veyne in its assay As if writes History, subjectively reaffirmed the propensity of history to the narrative and literature, suggesting that the historian, in its craft, would act as the literato, taken for the tram and the urdido plot. Of this form, as the exposition of Veyne, the historian must be assumen of the notion of intrigues, elaborated for the fiction, resource that a more including understanding of the event will make possible. He is the narrator, through its intrigues, that it makes to emerge of the esquecimento the disordered substance of possible events, attributing felt to the facts.

facts do not exist separately, in the direction of that the fabric of history is what we will call a tram, a mixture much very little scientific human being and of material causes, ends and acasos; of one he slices of the life that the historian isolated according to its convenience, where the facts has its subjective bows and its relative importance. The quarrel elaborated here if inserts in the call Cultural History, a subcarrier of the history that if occupies of a variety of devices, is they written, verbal or imagtico, sheltering innumerable possibilities of treatment with the sources, inquiries and readings. The historian Robert Darnton is who guides in them regarding the possibility of reading of practical the social ones, ' ' because if he can read a ritual or a city, in the same way as if he can read a popular story or a text filosfico' ' , warning the author for the search of the meanings that appear to each new to look at on the object.

Roman State

The text presents a clear language and therefore it obtains to portray in few pages the context where if it found the education in the Roman State, initially being to have only of the family and later starting to be of responsibility of the State. The text presents details where the reader can build a dialogue coming back to the time and making to understand one little of the start of the history of the education. Reflections around the pertaining to school institutions Romans in the period of the Empire and the Republic; the education in the family; the military education; the private education; the Education as public incubency of the State. The period treated in the text is around 509 a.C until 476 middles of d.C. It is possible to establish viabilities and some assumptions of as the text is treated in accordance with heading, this occurs because when making its reading: ' ' The Education and the Romano&#039 State; ' we verify that the content was developed around the pertaining to school institutions in the period where the Roman State governed. The author created probabilities around the beginning of the process of organized escolarizao or not, its stages and as this occurred. In the Roman State a development in the educational system happened, that of beginning was only responsibility of the family, and soon later, after some events, also started to be incubency of state.

In the republican phase (509 the 27 a.C) the familiar education Roman can be characterized by basic principles of the respect and the incorporation of the ancestral customs. Age of responsibility of the mother the education of its children until the seven years, that englobava the biological aspects, intellectual and moral. From now on the father if puted in charge of the education them boys. The girls learned domestic tasks with the mother.

Spanish Crown

Such fact takes in to believe them that the characteristics of autonomy and relative independence of the missions relation to the metropolis, had been felt since very early by the Jesuits, as well as for the proper guaranis, that did not have the contact with ' ' cacique' ' beyond sea. In this way the guaranis that had, in a first contact with the Jesuits been coed-opt for the cross, now were being legally incorporated the weapons of the whites. ' ' Thus the guaranis of the reductions would have respect to the king (…), constructing blockhouses and defending territrio.' ' (URBIM, 1990:10). The SEVEN PEOPLES IN the WAY OF the INTERESTS OF CENTURY XVIII a materialize time ' ' dream of misses' ' , first for will of the Jesuits the service of the Spanish Crown. at as a moment for the acceptance of guarani the life of the reductions, that had to this process finished for the imposition ' ' disfarada' ' , creating for itself a mythical explanation and of identification for the understanding of the world its return. For the didactic tactics it can be said, applied for the Jesuits in a conjunctural process that was the reduction, made to seem that the missioneiro jesutico project was the most perfect social process, economic and politician of administration in the new world. will be that it was not? It could not have been? Well of any form this growth and prominence that started if to augment of the power of the Company of Jesus, to be able enter them of the two crowns seem not to have pleased nor Spain and nor Portugal. We can consider that interests of both the sides, had not led in account that the end of the Missions, did not mean only the end of the works of catequese of the Company of Jesus.

Bolivia State

In way to the process, the two trends politics, two forces antagonistic, that is, liberal-burguese and the popular resolution. Not occurring in way its formation differences, therefore both promoted the development capitalist and defended the city or towns, therefore the autonomy would be the only form of guaranteeing to its inhabitants the right the land. Vilhitas and zapatistas had points its favor, therefore they dominated the center of the countries, being capable to send troops for any point of Mexico, in virtue of such control, that they dominated; being clearly that the zapatistas had, great it influences promoting the movements and manifestations, whose interest turned ' ' questions agrria' ' ' ' questions operaria' ' , ' ' reform social, administrative and poltica' '. With regard to questions you would operate the program established an educational system, laws on industrial accidents, pensions for pensioners and etc. the convention also lesgilou on the national education, the foreign university, monopoly, the mining, exploration and others.

Thus we notice that the revolutionary ideal peasant did not die in the battlefields, those ideals of the product of the fight of classrooms, involving always the Mexican bourgeoisie, prevailing with objective to lead, not it revolutionary radicalism, however aiming at transformations of the society. Therefore the objectives, searched were a igualitria society, a state organized in relations the economy, social politics and. But we can conclude that the shocks between the groups, had developed a feeling of rivalry and opposition between the defenders and you lead of Mexico. However looking at on the other hand, the abalos, provoked for the zapatista movement and others, favored to constitute the social reforms, that if incorporated in the state; that backwards today indelveis marks of a direct confrontation of different classrooms, but with interest to defend its objectives; creating symbolically one ' ' state revolucionrio' '. We must observes the drama lived for Bolivia, that is the same in relation to the other continents; why the history of this country it synthecizes the politicosocial anguish of Latin America.

Paul Ricoeur

We evidence this affirmation when we verify the following stretch: What he is that vocs they think, that Jesus Christ was born of the Virgin Maria? It is not possible that it has given the light and has continued virgin. It who has been a good man any, or son of some man of good well can very be (GUINZBURG, 2006:35). In this manner, Guinzburg goes counting the history of Menocchio. I consign as excellent to detect that its narrative is not chronological, since, already in the first pages, it communicates the reader who in day 28 of September of 1583, the miller was denounced to the Ofcio Saint. However, its form to tell is not harmed, that is, of easy understanding.

We face, therefore, as much the documentation as the narrative, in this in case that, as a chance to not only reconstruct ' ' masses indistintas' ' , as, also, the individual personalities. From a biographical reconstitution, we perceive a point of view of the subordinate classrooms and becomes possible to analyze the relation of the experience of an individual, in one determined space, with a modulation of global history. Thus being, we can perceive in the workmanship of Carlos Guinzburg, some points that we initially ponder, as for example, the use of the narrative as one forms to clarify the structures, mentioned for Peter Burke, since the Italian historian found a satiated documentation, and can reconstitute the trajectory of Menocchio in and a clearly attractive text, discharging in a general hypothesis on the popular culture of the Europe daily pay-industrial. We verify that the narrative became, in this workmanship, a component of historiogrfica operation, as it pointed out Paul Ricoeur, and was capable to demonstrate, through a story of solid facts, the true functioning of some aspects of the society that would be distorted by the generalization and for used quantitative formalizao independent e, finally, incorporated, to the main body of the narrative, the documentary procedures of research in itself, limitations, the interpretativas techniques of persuasion and constructions.

Indian National Congress

It is distinguished, in this period, the Great Riot that if it transformed into civil war, provoking the loss of Delhi and Lucknow and constituting serious threat to the British domain. The rebellion of native army of the cipaios (welded Indian that served in the army of the British Company of Eastern India), in Cane, in 1857, it culminated with retaken British of Delhi and the end of the government exerted for the Company. In 1858, the British crown assumed the direct responsibility for the government of the colony; the queen Victory was proclaimed empress of India and started the period of the vice-kingdoms. She did not have, however, a formal domination of all India (what she would understand herself for a colonizador process), as well as also she happened with China and Japan. In the level of the administration, to the side of 15 provinces managed directly for governors, under the superior authority of a vice-king, ones 600 existed ' ' states nativos' ' (native states), governed for the respective maharajahs, rajs (under the English supervision) etc.

' ' concesses' ' ' ' territories arrendados' ' they predominated in China. In 1885, fruit of periods of initiated economic crisis in the decade of 1870 (hunger, epidemics, revolts peasants, I occasion of nationalism), established the Party of the Indian National Congress, when not yet it was said in independence (under strong influence of ' ' ocidentalistas' '). The mobilization of the masses against the settling, at the beginning of century XX, was led by the ideas of a bonanza man, the least under the strategist vision politician, ' ' mahatma' ' Gandhi, influential defender of ' ' Satyagraha' ' , it searchs incessant of ' ' verdade' ' , and of ' ' Ahimsa' ' (principle of the not-aggression, not violent form of protest, for example, ' ' swadeshi' ').

Muzarib Military

Among them was a native of the village Kyzburun I Muzarib Kupov. Even as a child was born his dream of becoming a soldier. He believed that only the army is able to temper the character, spirit men, make it strong and courageous. Therefore, there was no end to joy when in 1930 his nineteen-year guy, was drafted into the Red Army. And he came to serve in the Kabardino-Balkar national cavalry squadron, commanded by then Aslanbek Mirzoyev. Military affairs Muzarib studied seriously, and soon became an excellent student of combat and political training. And here is the first appointment – squad.

Diligence and discipline the young Red Army soldier, a true military vein, did not go unnoticed by his commander. As a reward Muzariba sent to Krasnodar, in the military and Cavalry School, he graduated with honors and returned to his squadron at the rank of lieutenant. In 1938, an officer M. Kupova transferred to a military unit in the Pskov region. This and began his road frontage. From the earliest days of the war with the White Finns Muzarib been at the forefront.

Our Soldiers confronted the cunning and wily enemy. The young officer knew that it just will not take, and tried to skillfully apply the knowledge of the conduct of hostilities, obtained in the cavalry school. But Muzarib was too hot. In violent skirmishes with the enemy first rushed into battle, his men showing an example of bravery and courage, and often forget about caution and your own safety.

German Red Army

Strategically successful, despite their bloody battles winter 1941 near Moscow, Yelets, Rostov, Tikhvin, if not led to an environment, but at least the Germans to retreat – the apparent unwillingness of the German troops for battle in winter conditions led to an erroneous assessment of Stalin's war potential of Germany. This assessment is reflected in the directive known members of the military councils of the fronts on the strategic goals of military operations in the winter of 1942, where task was the victorious end of the war in 1942, military defeat of Germany was there, but victory was still far away. Unfortunately, our expected victory in 1942 was a mirage. Calculations of the Supreme Command wrest the strategic initiative from the enemy through the winter and spring of 1942 a number of private offensives failed to materialize. Instead of new victories followed a series of failures, significantly worsened situation on the Soviet-German front.

'After the Red Army was enough to wear down the German troops, she moved to the offensive and drove to the West German invaders. In order to delay our progress, the Germans switched to defense and began to build defensive positions in trenches, obstacles, field fortifications. The Germans hope to hold such a way our offensive until the spring to the spring, gathering strength again to take the offensive against the Red Army. The Germans want, therefore, to gain time and get a breather. Our goal is to prevent the Germans of this break, drive to the west without stopping, to make them expend their reserves before the spring, when we have new large reserves, and the Germans will not be more reserves and thus ensure the complete destruction of Hitler's forces in 1942 '- so thought Stalin.

Crusaders

In the town there were very few soldiers, perhaps they were attacked and they went on the attack. Alexei capture of the city were not so many soldiers and Some were hungry, and even wounded. His spies sniff that the army went to war against Nicaea city Heraclea, who attacked them a few days ago. Alex had to take the city to return his army back and to apply severe injury to the city, which would then settle down there for some time. Alex knew that at the main entrance go pointless. He decided to bypass the city on the other side and smash the wall until the archers are firing with slingers. Alex decided to make a battering ram to break through the wall. Spear Alexis went to the woods and cut wood for the frame and drag the logs.

They did a frame, and the largest timber hung on the ropes in the frame and the pointed end logs put the iron tip. So, the Crusaders went around the city behind and quickly broke the wall, while archers versed with slingers. And suddenly there was a clatter of hooves – is the army of Nicaea was returning from a hike at Hercules. The battle between the Crusaders and Turks. In this battle, the Crusaders were defeated, and Alex with five spearmen fled to the rest of the army. During this time his main army found a small oasis near the sea and gathered there water, dates, coconuts, bananas, olives and wild grapes.

The Red Army

Why I am interested in history? Very simple – I grew up in a Jewish village, and nearby was the village of German. Near his parents' house was modestly obelisk carved with his father from the cartridge shell star – were buried under it either twenty, thirty or whether the Red Army. Directly behind our garden lay in a mass grave were killed Nazis my Jewish fellow-villagers, and in every garden, but in a blackthorn scrub zarostali graves of German soldiers. I played with the boys in the neighborhood 'Ruska' and 'Nimtsiv' and get into the 'Ruska' captive Jewish boy Ben shouted: 'Hyundai Hoch, Jerry! " And we played the trunks of these rifles or machine, and only pockets were full of ammunition, and mines with I was a master of shells to collect. Often sat in the tall grass on the ground burnt and restored 20 years, the school and played in the German glass bottles. On them learned to read German, caps on the wells recognize all military German teminologiyu.

So loved the language – I have lived in their midst, and the age of 6 has decided to become an archeologist. So I started reading history books and learn what they are … lie. Like any child in a Jewish environment, I was an excellent student and immensely respected The view of older people: his grandfather Beni Yaruhima grandfather, grandfather Shulim. Their native ancestors, I only saw the photos. That's why some grandparents, the villagers were talking about a very bad Grandpa Lenin and praised some of Trotsky, and Stalin and Hitler on said one word – shayze.